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All nations unilaterally determine their standard time zones, applicable only on land and adjacent territorial waters.

This date line can be called de facto since it is not based on international law, but on national laws.

These include portions of the Republic of Kiribati, including Millennium Island in the Line Islands, as well as Samoa during the southern summer.

The first major cities to experience a new day are Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand (UTC ; UTC with daylight saving time).

These include Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Mc Murdo Station, Scott Base and Mario Zucchelli Station.

There are two ways time zones and thereby the location of the International Date Line are determined, one on land and adjacent territorial waters, and the other on open seas.

The areas that are the first to see the daylight of a new day vary by the season.

These various deviations generally accommodate the political and/or economic affiliations of the affected areas. The IDL remains on the 180° meridian until passing the equator.It is the result of the 1917 Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, which recommended that all ships, both military and civilian, adopt hourly standard time zones on the high seas. This date line is implied but not explicitly drawn on time zone maps.The United States adopted its recommendation for U. It follows the 180° meridian except where it is interrupted by territorial waters adjacent to land, forming gaps—it is a pole-to-pole dashed line.The 15° gore that is offset from UTC by 12 hours is bisected by the nautical date line into two 7.5° gores that differ from UTC by ±12 hours.Ships are supposed to adopt the standard time of a country if they are within its territorial waters within 12 nautical miles (14 mi; 22 km) of land, then revert to international time zones (15° wide pole-to-pole gores) as soon as they leave.

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The IDL must therefore be observed in conjunction with the Earth's time zones: on crossing it in either direction, the calendar date is adjusted by one day.