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The origins of the doctorate also dates back to the ijazat attadris wa ‘l-ifttd (“license to teach and issue legal opinions”) in the medieval Madrasahs which taught Islamic law.The library of Tripoli is said to have had as many as three million books before it was destroyed by Crusaders.The Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 CE.Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in the 975 CE, offered a variety of academic degrees, including postgraduate degrees, and is often considered the first full-fledged university.Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, and municipal solid waste mishandling.
The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories.Herein I have dealt justly with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me.For “There is no compulsion in religion” (Qur’an 6) and I have only invited you to accept our faith willingly and of your own accord and have pointed out the hideousness of your present belief. ” Early proto-environmentalist treatises were written in Arabic by al-Kindi, al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Avicenna, Ali ibn Ridwan, Abd-el-latif, and Ibn al-Nafis.Although, the mystics also had a significant influence in parts of Eastern Africa, Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), South Asia, East Asia and South-east Asia.Many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic, rational and scientific discourses in their search for knowledge, meaning and values.
The Islamic Golden Age is traditionally dated from the mid-7th century to the mid-13th century at which Muslim rulers established one of the largest empires in history.